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Presenting quotations well Quotations should be brief. You must quote exactly, including any punctuation marks. Use single quotation marks ' ' to enclose the quoted words of a short quotation. Double quotation marks " " are used to mark off a quotation within a longer quoted passage, often a passage from a literary work. If the quote is longer than about three lines it should be indented, that is, put in its own paragraph and set in further from the margin, and the quotation marks omitted.
Each quotation must have a reference, which should appear in brackets immediately afterwards, either naming the original source or using a number with a numbered reference at the end.
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If you add a word of your own in the middle of a quotation for clarity, then put square brackets [ ] around it. If you leave out a word or phrase, then indicate what you have done by putting an ellipsis … where the word or phrase was. Introduce a quotation with a phrase followed either by a comma or a colon.
Quoting and Referencing in academic writing
Different disciplines do have slightly different conventions, so check with your tutor. Mistaken use of concerning instead of concern. It's unnecessary to repeat Blair.
The writer should not repeat Emmit and repetition in the quote. At the end of your essay you will have listed your bibliography, in other words the books that you have referred to in writing the essay. Within the body of your essay, you only have to provide a small amount of information the reference but it will be enough to tell the reader in which book you found the quotation, and perhaps where to find it in that book.see
Who Said What? – How to Use Quote Marks
References in an academic essay usually consist of the author's last name, the year of publication and the page number. Like this:. Notice the single quotation marks around the original words used.
Notice also the position of the full-stop when we have the reference at the very end of the sentence. The reference is enclosed within the boundary of the sentence. As noted before, where a longer passage is quoted within a paragraph, then this is inset and the author's name is placed at the end of the quotation. There is little doubt that this is an unworkable and unacceptable solution to the problem. Further research must be conducted before a solution can be found. Jones : Another point to remember is that where several authors have written one book or article, and the first named author is a man, you should not refer to he when you mean they.
If the authors are John Benson and Mary Jones, it would be incorrect to refer throughout the essay to what Benson said or what he discovered. It would be more appropriate to talk about what the writers have stated, or what they had noted. Quoting and referencing There are two main reasons why we use source material in our writing: to support a particular point that we have just made in the body of the essay or dissertation to indicate to the reader that we have read and understood the literature that is relevant to the particular topic.
It is very important to ensure that the quote is correctly given; providing a mis-quotation in your essay would indicate a serious level of carelessness. The quotation must be relevant to the argument that you are making.
The quotation should support a point that you have just made. The quote must be integrated grammatically into your own writing. Where the quotation is short for example, less than one line you can continue on the same line, enclosing the quotation in single quotation marks, and of course, providing the reference.
If the quotation is more than one line, start a new line and indent the whole quotation. For example, you could embed a quotation into your sentence or separate the quotation with a colon after your point. The most effective way to use quotations is to embed them into your argument. Embedding is when the quotation becomes part of your own sentence :. This method allows you to use quotations in a precise way and select evidence carefully.
Another common method is to use a quotation at the end of a point.
A colon must be used before the quotation:. If a much longer quotation is being used, it is appropriate to separate it from the main essay by leaving a line and indenting the text. Indenting means leaving a gap after the left-hand margin. It is not necessary to use quotation marks if the text is separate from the main essay.
You could introduce the quotation like this:. Below the introductory sentence you would leave a line and then indent the quotation.
An ellipsis is a punctuation mark of three dots in a row that shows something is missing from the sentence. An ellipsis in a quotation can be used if you want to leave out a section.
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